As theorists have noted, the governmental promise to secure safety and security for all citizens has fallen short. Consequentially, this has allowed the state to mobilize popular fears and insecurities to usher in more invasive and excessive forms of control (Simon, 2007). This intensified form of governance has created over-controlled subjects existing in a highly managed society where avenues for thrill, excitement, and extreme emotional experience are absorbed by a culture necessitating risk avoidance. Ontological upheaval is the result.
Underpinning transgressive behaviors, perhaps, is an insatiable desire to escape from under the regulatory juggernaut emanating from the aforementioned late-modern preoccupation with safety and order (Hayward, 2004). As efforts increase to include more behaviors under the umbrella of control, individuals experience ontological strains that can be alleviated by engaging in transgressive behaviors. Rather than the result of being blocked from achieving the ‘American Dream’, individuals may experience sources of strain by not fulfilling individual needs (identity, excitement, emotional stimulation) due to contemporary modes of governance.Situating Strain within Late Modernity ,